Category Archives: Outdoor Lore

Storage Survival Steps for Your Gear

For most hikers, winter spells the end of the hiking season until the Spring thaw brings us back out from our caves. But wait, before you hunker down by the fireplace with a good book, take just a little time out to make sure you put away your gear properly so that it’ll be there for you for many seasons to come.

Here are 5 quick steps you can take to prolong the lifespan of your valuable outdoor gear. Don’t wait until Spring to tackle these changes—grab this list and go to your gear closet now.

1. Re-waterproof your raingear at the start of every hiking season to keep it from letting the environment in at inconvenient times. The standard waterproof coating will degrade over time, allowing more condensation buildup, and eventually just soaking right through even after a light rain. Look for something like NikWax.

2. Store your sleeping bag uncompressed! You can keep it in a breathable cotton, mesh, or canvas stuff sacks placed on shelves, hung in the closet or just layer out in the spare room across the bed. Storing your bag compressed, although a space saver, will eventually ruin the insulating capacity of your sleeping bag. The pressure crushes down feathers and breaks synthetic fibers, reducing their ability to trap air and thus keep you warm.

3. Dry it out. Hang your expensive sleeping bags and tents to dry inside-out after every trip. Cutting down on any moisture will decrease the growth of mildew during storage.

4. Combat mold. Uncap water bottles and open up hydration bladders when not in use. Free air flow will prevent moisture from being trapped inside and developing a nasty case of mold. Take it from me, forgetting your water bladder for several weeks after a trip in the depths of your backpack in generally not a great idea. If you really want to combat mold, try storing your hydration bladders and tubes in your refrigerator. The cold air will slow down the mold that infiltrates hard-to-clean nooks of the bladders and tubes.

5. Preserve your power. Keep your battery-powered goodies and any extra batteries in a cool, dry spot. Extreme heat (much more than cold) will drain batteries quicker tan a vampire convention at a blood bank. There’s nothing like fumbling in the dark for “fresh” batteries to replace your headlamp, only to discover that they aren’t so fresh after all

 

Rescue Me!

So you’re lost.

You’re not quite sure where you got turned around, but if you just keep going, you’ll probably figure it out, right? Maybe if you follow this stream downhill… didn’t Bear Grylls say something about water leading to civilization?

Lost in the Wilderness

The shadows start to grow around you and the trees that seemed so welcoming now hold hidden menace… Night is falling and you’re getting nervous. You’re starting to realize how unprepared you are: no headlamp to illuminate the growing dark, no jacket to hold off the chill. The cold is starting to bite at your shorts clad legs. You can see some lights in the distance; maybe if you just keep going it’ll work out alright…

It’s always there; the temptation to just keep going. It’s a natural tendency, to want to rely on yourself, to avoid the embarrassment of “getting lost”, but there’s a dark side to this self reliance. There comes a time to acknowledge that you are indeed lost, and to sacrifice your ego, call for help (if possible), stop moving and find a safe place to hunker down.

Here are some tips to help you stay safe and be found as quickly as possible.

  • Let em’ know before you go. Let someone reliable know where you are going and when to expect you back. It’s common sense, but too few people actually do it. We can’t send out a rescue team unless we know approximately when and where you disappeared.
  • Keep your lines of communication open. Bring your cell phone and conserve your battery until you need it by turning it off or using airplane mode. A sketchy cell connection may someday be enough to save your life. If you have a GPS enabled phone, the Sheriff may be able to get a ping on your rough location for the rescue team. This is useful to us only if you stay put!
  • Find a safe spot out of shelter of the wind and elements to spend the night. Getting cold? You can jog around your improvised campsite, do push-ups, exercise…. But above all, stay put!
  • Don’t be lured in by the lights. Our local Southern California mountian ranges are often surrounded by a network of roads and cities. The lights twinkling in the distance can seem so tantalizingly near, so achievable. But what you can’t see at night are the dangers that lie ahead of you in the dark, the rough terrain and impassable cliffs that are concealed under the cover of night. Many a lost hiker has been lured in by the siren song of the city lights, only to be trapped in the dangerous jungle of steep ravines with no safe route back up or down.
  • Stay put! You are far more likely to fall and injure yourself while moving in the dark or in unfamiliar territory. Moving will probably only make a bad situation worse. If you could depend on your sense of direction you wouldn’t be lost in the first place. Moving wears you out and wastes your resources.
  • DON’T lead us on a wild goose chase! (Did I mention you should stay put?) Moving puts not only you at risk, but also the rescue personnel that are trying to find you. If you’ve managed to put a call through about your location or believe that you have been reported missing from a specific trailhead or area it’s particularly important that you don’t go wandering off in another direction and widen the search area.
  • Be prepared to patiently wait. It can take a while for emergency services to activate the search team. We are all volunteers with our own jobs and lives. We must stop whatever we are doing, or climb out of our beds, gather our gear and drive to the trailhead. Also remember, the people looking for you won’t be moving as fast as you; we are carrying heavy packs with extra supplies (for you!) and must often stop to call out and check out side canyons and gullies for your tracks before moving on.
  • Help us out! Can you see or hear a helicopter looking for you? It’s amazingly hard for the air crew to see people on the ground, especially if you stand still. In a recent interview with aviation one of the guys remarked; “If you stand next to a rock, you look like a rock”. If you want to be found, go to a nearby clearing, ridge line or rock outcropping and make yourself visible: wave, move around to catch their attention. (NOTE: they can’t hear you over the rotor blades, so save your voice!). Don’t expect them to immediately land and pick you up. Often they will instead call in your location for our ground crew to reach you. If you’ve been sighted don’t move- even if the helicopter flies away, stay put!

 

So go out, have fun, try not to get lost…. But if you do happen to get in trouble, did I mention you should stay put?

A Safe Cuppa Joe

Stove Safety while backpacking

Coffee is the best thing to douse the sunrise with. ~Terri Guillemets

With crisp fall days on the way in the high country, cooking up a mug of some steaming hot coffee on my little MSR stove is pure backpacking heaven. However, a camp stove can also be very dangerous if used carelessly. Here are a few strategies to keep you safe and your tummy satisfied.

  1. Check local regulations in the area you plan to camp. Due to the extreme fire risk in our local wilderness, a permit is required to use a camp stove for both day hikes as well as overnights, and campfires are totally prohibited in the high country. Fire regulations may change throughout the year, so make sure and contact the Ranger station for the latest info.
  2. Get to know your stove. Each camp stove has specific guidelines in it’s manual to keep you from burning your eyebrows off. TIP: In order to avoid any nasty surprises, make sure you set your stove up at home and take it for a quick spin before you take it out on the trail.
  3. Think before you fire up. Before you light your camp stove, make sure that you have placed stably it on a level area clear of dry fuel like pine needles and duff. This will prevent little inconveniences like starting a raging forest fire or having boiling water spill all over you.
  4. Careful lighting- During lighting, keep your face, hair and expensive (and flammable) hiking clothes away from the stove. Using a fuel like isobutene? Be careful how much gas you let out before you light your stove since too much can cause a big flame-up. A friend who shall remain unnamed recently lost his facial hair this year in a freak camping stove incident.
  5. Keep it outside: When the weather turns bad it’s tempting to try and cook inside your tent. Don’t. Backpacking tents tend to be exceedingly flammable and cooking inside them is a generally a bad idea. A moment of inattention and you could lose your shelter. TIP: For periods of heavy wind, rain or snow bring along some foods that don’t require cooking.
  6. Deceptively hot: Be very careful if you are cooking while it is still bright out. The flames generated by some fuels can be difficult to see in bright light and it’s easy enough to burn yourself on a flame you didn’t think was lit. Hands off! I’ve learned first hand not to touch a camp stove too soon after extinguishing the flame. Angry red blisters covering your fingers are a great reminder that patience is a virtue. Let your stove cool before you put it away.
  7. Stow it safely. Before you put away your stove, allow it to sit outside in a well-ventilated location so that any remaining fuel inside can disperse. Check your fuel container to make sure it is properly sealed. Store stove and fuel containers away from any sources of high heat.
  8. Enjoy your coffee.

Seasons Change: Fall Hiking & Backpacking

Fall Hiking in the Sierra NevadaFall. The days are still deceptively warm, but the night air carries a crispness that speaks of snow and ice to come. It’s the perfect season for hiking- that is if you follow a few tips that will enhance your enjoyment and safety.

Weather Woes:

A mild Autumn day hike can turn uncomfortably cold with the addition of a surprise storm. Air temperature drops about 3° to 4°F for every 1,000 feet of elevation gain. Heading for Tahquitz Peak? With around 3,300 feet in gain, the temperature may drop as much as 13 degrees from downtown Idyllwild (not accounting for wind chill.) That means a simple drizzle in downtown Idyllwild could turn to biting cold rain or even icy flurries as you climb.

How to keep safe and warm despite the changing weather?

Hiking tips: heating up the trail

Stay dry: While you’re updating your pack for the colder weather ahead, make sure to pack your rain gear and additional dry insulating baselayers to change into. Clothing wet from sweat or rain conducts heat 25 times faster than air and can lead to a surprisingly quick loss of body heat.

Switch to higher-fat snacks: Calorie-dense foods like chocolate, nuts and nut-butters, and cheese burn slowly, keeping you warmer longer. I love those serving size packets of Justin’s maple almond butter and coconut butter. You can find a variety of single serving packets at our local Harvest Market.

Bring enough water and/or a water filter: Many of the water sources in the high country have dried up and sources that were fresh flowing may have become stagnant over the summer. Staying hydrated allows your body to regulate it’s heat stores much more efficiently.

Overnight tips: Keys to staying cozy in camp

Be picky about where you pitch your tent: Your camp-site choice is critical to spending a comfortable night. Pitch your tent well above lower-lying areas like gullies, meadows, and creeks where cold, damp air settles. Nighttime temps can be as much as 25°F warmer just 250 feet above the inversion layer!

Take the chill out of the wind chill: make use of natural windbreaks by pitching your tent behind thicker stands of trees, bigger boulders, and on leeward sides of slopes.

Downsize: Bring a smaller shelter. A lower-volume tent requires less of your body heat to warm it.

Snack yourself warm: Eat a snack and brew hot drinks while you set up your camp. Snack again just before bedtime; digestion will help raise your body temp.

Fat is your friend: Add oil and spices to your fall meal plans. Coconut oil is a quick burning fat,butter is just plain delicious (and has gotten a much undeserved bad rap) and olive oil can add great flavor to any meal. Eating spices like ginger, nutmeg, and cinnamon can increase blood flow to the skin and make you feel warmer.

Delicious Brook Trout in Butter and Garlic
Delicious Brook Trout, skin on, with plenty of Butter and Garlic!

Remember: Seasons change, and so should you.

Arches National Park: Over the Rainbow

Arches National Park, 2010
Photo by Helene Lohr, Arches National Park, UT, 2012

“Before we had airplanes and astronauts, we really thought that there was an actual place beyond the clouds, somewhere over the rainbow. There was an actual place, and we could go above the clouds and find it there.” ~Barbara Walters

Dark clouds boil across the horizon. A flock of ravens coughs out the last of their calls towards the oncoming storm and flies off towards the thinning blue horizon to the east. I’m in a “scenic” pull out on the side of the road Arches National Park, UT, and things are about to get ugly.

Thunder rolls down through the canyons, lightning spikes through the heavy air. A spattering of raindrops becomes a torrent. The rain falls so hard it stings my fingers. Tourists quickly flee for the shelter of their cars. Other photographers flee en masse, shielding precious lenses against the suddenly wasted day. I almost laugh- it’s practically a scene from an “Armageddon” style movie, without the inevitable end of the world, of course.

I make a hasty retreat to my trusty 4Runner, swing open the door. Using the running board to launch myself inside, I slam the door against the pelting rain. I take off the sunglasses I still have on my head, uselessly try to wipe off the droplets with my wet shirt. The rumble of cars pulling out of the lot gradually dies down as the others filter out back towards town, towards mouth watering burgers at Milt’s and a tasty microbrew at the Moab Brewery. It’s my decision, do I turn left onto road and follow the crowd out of of park? Or turn right and drive deeper?

The rain pelts the windshield so hard and fast that all I can see of the twisted road is a vague blur as the back and forth whine of wipers strains to keep up. Its a half an hour drive until I reach the signs for Balanced Rock. The white noise of the rain on the roof soothes, bringing on a Zen-like state where time doesn’t matter.

A beam of sun announces that the deep blue of the desert sky is reclaiming some of its’ territory. The rain recedes into the distance. I roll down the window. The clean scent of wet desert earth washes up through my nostrils and breezes into my lungs. Everything feels lighter. Cleaner, better. The clouds range high above to the southeast, piled up on top of each other. The sun shines down, reflecting through the water vapor. The smooth vibrant tones of a Rainbow form behind the rock. The car door swings open with a slight creak. Canon in hand the rainbow pulls me forward. The cracked red plain feels cool under my feet.

Photograph, Arches National Park, UT
Photo by Helene Lohr, Arches National Park, UT, 2012

 

The rocky plain warms up in the sun. Rivers of water are dying quickly to rivulets, the cracks in the rock of the desert floor drinking up their life blood. Pools of vanishing water reflect the dramatic sky. I shoot for hours, barely noticing as the occasional car makes a hum in the distance – people slowly filtering back in to explore the park.

I reach the trailhead to Delicate Arch as the sun swings low down the horizon. The sandy trail is perfect. I throw my shoes into my backpack, swing it up onto my shoulders, nestle tripod into the notch of my right shoulder. Some of the tourists have ventured back into the park and I nod my way past surprised looks as I run barefoot up the trail past them. Bare toes digging deliciously into the wet sand soil, I book it up the trail towards Delicate Arch as the sun sets behind me.

The sun beats me up the trail. At the Arch a raven struts along the smooth golden red bowl below. The gold fades to yellow, then gray. The crowd sifts away. I’m left alone with a brilliant splash of stars and the dark silhouette of the rock surrounding me. I don’t have my timer for a long exposure to capture the stars, but that doesn’t matter now. Now is not the time for photos… I lay back into the rock, rest my head against the rough stone and soak in its’ warmth. I have my headlamp, my gear and my backpack. In a few hours, I’ll head back down, check in at the friendly little Rustic Inn. But now? I’m over the Rainbow… This is as good as it gets.

 

 

Beat the Heat

RMRU 4th of July Parade Litter Races
A quick break in the litter races: RMRU in the Idyllwild 4th of July Parade

It’s getting HOT.

I noticed this obvious little fact last week as we were running litter races up and down North Circle Drive in all of our call out gear, carrying litters full of girl scouts throwing candy. After the parade we were dripping in well-earned sweat and very happy to enjoy a cold beverage of choice.

Whether you’re running litter races or hiking a trail, you can become dehydrated in any season. Heat can cause you problems quickly if you’re not prepared for it. You can lose up to 20% of your stamina with only 2% dehydration. That’s a big drop. Even worse, when your system is low on water, you tend to lose mental acuity as well- and that can lead to other, worse mistakes that can put you in real harm’s way.

As you get more and more dehydrated your body quickly loses it’s ability to regulate its own temperature. As you may have guessed, this is not really a good thing. Loss of temperature regulation on a hot day in the back country can lead to both heat exhaustion and heat stroke, neither of which you really want to experience.

Heat exhaustion:

Heat exhaustion happens when a person exercises in a hot environment and can’t get rid of enough of the heat generated in their body by sweating. Their systems start to become overwhelmed as they become more and more dehydrated and lose temperature regulation. Symptoms of heat exhaustion include profuse sweating, weakness, nausea, vomiting, headache, lightheadedness, and muscle cramps. This is a serious condition that can escalate into a life threatening emergency.

Heat Stroke:

Heat stroke is one of the most severe forms of heat illness. It can kill you or damage your brain and other internal organs irreparably. It can occur as a slow build up from conditions like heat exhaustion, or happen suddenly. Symptoms range from headache, lack of sweating despite heat, rapid heartbeat and breathing, nausea and disorientation to the extremes of seizures and coma. The best treatment is to cool them as rapidly as possible and calling for advanced medical aid asap. Not really on my agenda for a fun day hiking.

Prevention

Make sure you drink, but don’t just chug water. Your body needs electrolytes in order to keeps its systems balanced and running well. You can actually “overwater” your body to the point that things start going wrong. This condition is called “hyponatremia” and can be pretty serious, with similar symptoms to heat exhaustion and heat stroke.The only major difference? You’ll probably be peeing like a racehorse as your body attempts valiantly to rid itself of the excess fluids to restore electrolyte balance.

If you are eating as well as drinking, you’re likely to get enough of these electrolytes from your food. If not? Make sure to bring an electrolyte powder mix to add to some water or something like gatorade to fill the need.

Carry enough water and be sure to actually drink it. Yes, it’s heavy, but it’s worth it! It also doesn’t help if your water solidly wedged into the unreachable side pocket on your backpack. Either make a pact with your hiking partner to grab it for you whenever you stop, or invest in an easy access solution like a camelback or platypus water bladder and suction tube.

Know your resources: Most people don’t carry enough water, or know where it’s available if they need it in the high country. USFS Rangers have a good idea of the conditions of water sources in the high country- ask at the USFS front desk for an update before you head out.

Wear loosefitting, lightweight clothing. Wearing heavy clothing or those really hip tight leggings you just bought won’t allow your body to cool properly.

Wear light-colored clothing, especially if you’re in the sun. Keep that awesome black workout shirt for your indoor jazzercise class. Dark colored clothing absorbs heat. Light-colored clothing can help keep you cool by reflecting the sun’s rays. So, even if its not as fashionable that beige hiking shirt is the way to go.

Get conditioned to heat. Limit the amount you spend hiking in the heat until you’re used to it. It’s just the beginning of the summer season- you don’t have to scramble up to the highest peak during midday just yet, do you? People who are not used to hot weather are especially vulnerable to heat-related illness. Remember, it can take up to several weeks for your body to adjust to hot weather.
Consider this your yearly temperature regulation reminder!

Healthy Backcountry Kitchen

Cooking healthy food while backpacking

Keep it Fresh

When I started backpacking over two decades ago, I was convinced that packing fresh food was “verboten”. The colossal weight of several extra ounces of avocado on your back were just not worth the delight of savoring it’s creamy green goodness. The hiking gods would never allow such a sin to go unpunished. If you knew what was good for you, you’d stick with convenient and quick processed meals of dehydrated chicken and rice and count your bland, ultralight blessings.

While I still invest in lightweight gear, I’ve moved steadily away from gulping down the mummified remains of freeze-dried meals. I now know it’s possible to cook real, healthy food without wasting hours hunched over the stove or earning a hernia while carrying my dinner.

Here’s some helpful hints to turn your boring freeze-dried dinner into a (relatively) lightweight backcountry delight:

  1. Remember: Water is water. Your body doesn’t know the difference between the water in your Nalgene and in that succulent heirloom tomato. You’ll be carrying that water weight anyway- wouldn’t you rather some of it be in the form of delicious, juicy fruits and veggies? Benefits abound: Tomatoes alone provide a great amount of vitamin C and an outstanding antioxidant content- shown to fight fatigue and support your immune system- generally a great idea while hiking.
  2. Spices, spices, spices! Spices are worth their weight in gold. Salt and pepper are a must, but you can also bring anything from cumin to garlic powder. BONUS: include copious amounts of Curry for the anti-inflammatory powers of tumeric and you’ll be a lot less sore after your long days on trail. Skip the full containers and use Ziplock baggies for your kitchen on the go.
  3. Include healthy fats. Fat carries the most flavor- and serves as a great source of energy and materials to help your body to repair itself. Butter, coconut oil, olive oil and avocado oil are all great choices. Ounce for ounce, fats provide the most fuel and flavor you need to keep going. TIP: The medium chain Triglycerides in coconut oil are particularly useful for quick energy since the body can absorb them directly from the digestive tract without having to go through all the extra work of emulsification.
  4. Freeze your first night’s protein. Stash a great steak in the freezer overnight before your trip. Just before you’re about to go, take it out, double ziplock bag it and pack it deep in the center of your pack. Your other gear will act as insulation keeping it cold and leaving you with a real treat at the end of the day. (NOTE: Unfortunately veggies and fruits generally do NOT freeze well- ice crystals break up their cell structure and they will turn into mush as they melt). Protein and fat are both necessary materials to help repair your muscles after long hours of hiking with a heavy pack. Make sure to give your body what it needs to rebuild.
  5. Precook some of your ingredients for the first night’s meal. Food such as onions, mushrooms and other side dish veggies can be precooked and then added to your pan at the last minute. You’ll cut down on cooking time, the size of pans and amount of fuel you’ll need to carry. By incorporating foods such as onions and garlic, you’ll not only drive away bears (and other backpackers) but also give your body the sulfur it needs to help produce the glycosaminoglycans necessary (amongst other functions) for the smooth, pain free movements of your joints and tendons.
  6. Choose dehydrated wisely. Instead of going for bland dehydrated meals, choose individual dry ingredients that will actually enhance the end flavor and health of your meal. Sundried tomatoes, herbs and dried mushroom medleys are all just waiting to be rehydrated and mixed in as ultra-flavorful components of your meals.
  7. Utilize dry staples, such as quick cook rice and (Gluten Free) pasta, then add fresh ingredients to spice up the meal. NOTE: A helpful trick to speed up the cooking process is to add your pasta or rice to a Ziplock bag full of water for the last mile or so (perhaps more depending on estimated cook time) of your hike into camp.

Fresh food may add some weight, but with the right choices it can more than make up for that in flavor and health. Everything tastes better in the backcountry, but that’s no excuse for eating just plain bad food.

Wilderness Adventure: The Lucky 13 Essentials

Wilderness Adventure and Safety the 10 (plus 3) essentials, Idyllwild

Planning a roadtrip? Want to hit some wilderness areas for hiking and backpacking? As a Backcountry Skills Instructor, Search and Rescue Team Member, volunteer USFS Ranger and general Know-it-all I’ve had quite a bit of experience planning for safe trips into the wilderness. Here’s my own personal Adventurer’s list of 13 essentials for Wilderness Safety.

  1. Common Sense. Truly essential number ONE. Having the right gear is one thing, but knowing how and when to use it is another. Most often, it’s not a person’s gear that saves their bacon. It’s experience, know-how, and good judgment.
  2. Extra clothing. I always bring a down jacket, extra socks, rain gear and an emergency shelter. The weather can change its’ mind minute by minute. If you or your friend is injured, you may be required to stay in one place for an extended period through weather extremes. Contrary to what the media presents, rescues often take many hours to coordinate, even when you are lucky enough to have a helicopter available. Extra clothing can make the difference between a merely unpleasant night and a life threatening one.
  3. A hiking partner. Consider hiking with a partner. Hiking alone, especially in winter, can be dangerous. A critical point to remember: a cell phone is useful, but does not replace a partner. Batteries can go out, certain areas do not receive reception, and you may drop, damage or lose your phone.
  4. Headlamp and backup batteries. You never know how long you will have to stay out in emergency situations. Light to illuminate your surroundings and the trail home can be the difference between a safe trip home and a broken leg.
  5. Extra water and/or filter, especially in the summer- remember you never know what’s up the drainage… dead horse water anyone? Remember that your water bladder line can freeze in the winter and leak in the summer- it’s wise to bring a back-up Nalgene. Even 2% dehydration takes your physical and metal efficiency down 20% and makes you much more vulnerable to hypothermia or heat exhaustion. Most people we rescue are dehydrated in addition to being lost or injured.
  6. Extra Food. Getting stuck in the back country without extra food can be pretty uncomfortable. Keeping your energy up can help you stay in good health and keep you more mentally alert to make good decisions.
  7. Gear for Seasonal conditions: Microspikes, gloves, extra dark sunglasses and snow gaiters are always in my bag in the winter. Crampons, ice axe and snowshoes are always out in my gear room to be brought on an as needed basis. Hiking partners are on speed dial. A hat with a visor, sunglasses, insect gear and repellant, sunscreen and a head/neck buff are summer standards.
  8. Sun Protection. Dark sunglasses, hat and suncreen are more important to your safety than you know. A little sunburn may not kill you, but unprotected exposure to bright light (reflected off of snow or light graveled trails) for as little as an hour at high altitudes can (initially) painlessly burn your cornea and then lead to supremely painful snowblindess within a few hours. If you’ve experienced it full blown you will never forget it. Remember, if you are out on your own it is difficult and dangerous find your way down the trail without the use of your eyes.
  9. First Aid Gear– Carry the basics, know what you have and make sure you know how to use everything you carry. It won’t do you any good to carry something if you have no clue how to use it. It’s very a good idea to enroll yourself in a Wilderness First Aid course like one of those offered by Wildernessoutings.com (some of the best instructors I know).
  10. Map & Compass: Always bring a topo map of the region. Make sure you know how to read it and use your compass to orient the map. Knowing UTM coordinates is also really useful. You never know when you may have to call out the coordinates of the nearest meadow for a helicopter landing zone for Search and Rescue.
  11. Fire: a reliable source of fire can be critical to keeping you warm in emergency situations. Even though most Wilderness areas are fire free, there are situations where survival can trump all.
  12. Knife/repair tools. Having a knife can help you out in a lot of critical survival situations- not necessarily so dramatic as cutting off your own arm (a la 127 Hours), but important nonetheless.
  13. Vision aids. Have a prescription? Wear contacts? Make sure and bring both extra contacts and a set of glasses. I’ve had contacts tear, glasses break or my eyes become too irritated for contacts. On one particular high angle snow and ice rescue I was very glad I had brought an alternative. Take it from me, it’s not fun trying to make your way down the mountain while only seeing a vague blur of the trail ahead of you.

So get out there and have fun! But make sure you take the time ahead of time to prepare with the right gear, the right training, and most especially copious amounts of common sense. There are certainly other things that you can bring that will help you safely navigate the back country, but nothing trumps going into the wilderness with a good head on your shoulders!